impact of source of sand to the pressive strength of concrete

  • Technical Review of Calcium Nitrite Corrosion Inhibitor in ...

    pressive strength of the concrete mix and, with proper air entrainment, is freeze-thaw durable. In conclusion, the data generated in the last 20 years show that calcium nitrite is a proven corrosion-inhibiting admixture to be used to protect concrete structures in a chloride environment.

  • Compressive strength of˜concrete with˜palm kernel shell as ...

    particle size distribution of sand and palm kernel shell, workability of concrete and the compressive strength of the concrete.The values of this test results obtained were compared with normal sample made with normal aggregate. 2 Experimental programme 2.1 Maerialst 2.1.1 Cement Ashaka brand of ordinarPortland cemen(OPC)as used

  • Experimental study of concrete made with granite and iron ...

    Experimental study of concrete made with granite and iron powders as partial replacement of sand Shehdeh Ghannam a,HusamNajmb,⁎, Rosa Vasconezc a Department of Civil Engineering, Zarqa University, Zarqa, Jordan b Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rutgers University, NJ, USA c Department of Civil Engineering, California Polytechnic and State University, Pomona, CA, USA

  • Effect of Fineness of Sand on the Cost and Properties of ...

    There is faster increase in strength towards coarser side of sand. Effect of Fineness of Sand on Flexural Strength of Concrete Flexural strength is calculated from 28 days testing of beam of size 150x150x700 mm by using following formula. Flex. Strength = …

  • How sand affects mortar

    pressive strength, bond strength, workability, board life, drying shrinkage, and appearance of mortar. In mortar, water and cementi-tious materials form a paste that fills the voids between sand par-ticles, coating and lubricating the particles to create a workable mix. Sand characteristics affect the flow and body mortar needs in its plastic ...

  • Sand Extraction: 1. Introduction

    Introduction. Sand and gravel are used extensively in construction. In the preparation of concrete, for each tonne of cement, the building industry needs about six to seven times more tonnes of sand and gravel (USGS, 2013b). Thus, the world''s use of aggregates for concrete can be estimated at 25.9 billion to 29.6 billion tonnes a year for 2012 alone.

  • December 1981 Engineering and Research Center

    pressive strength of the concrete even.though theWICisheldconstant. Some admixtures which retard the hard-ening ofconcrete minimize problems due to delays and high temperature during.placement. Inherentwiththeuseoflesscement inthe concrete isareduction intheheatofhy-dration, especially important inmassive placements.. Admixtures willsometimes ...

  • Crushed rock sand – An economical and ecological ...

    River sand which forms around 35% of the concrete plays an important role in deciding the cost of concrete. Depleting sources of Natural River sand and strict environmental guidelines on mining has gradually shifted the attention of the concrete industry towards a suitable aggregate alternative that can replace the presently Natural River sand.

  • Physical and mechanical properties of fly ash and slag ...

    pared with the sand it replaces, or due to a reduction of available water in the sample caused by the water affinity of the MPCM shell [19]. Another possible drawback of MPCM addition to mortar or concrete is a reduction of the compressive strength [6,7,10]. How-ever, the compressive strength is still sufficiently high for struc-

  • Investigating the effect of M-sand on abrasion resistance ...

    sive strength and abrasion resistance of concrete. Li Beixing et al. [17] studied the influence of M-sand on strength and abrasion characteristics of pavement concrete by replacing the river sand with M-sand from 4.3% to 20% by mass and found that there was an increase in abrasion resistance and strength at 10% of M-sand.

  • Reinforced Concrete Design

    = concrete compressive design strength at 28 days (units of psi when used in equations) Deformed reinforcing bars come in grades 40, 60 & 75 (for 40 ksi, 60 ksi and 75 ksi yield strengths). Sizes are given as # of 1/8" up to #8 bars. For #9 and larger, the number is a nominal size (while

  • GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR FASTENINGS

    different concrete types. 1.1.1.4.1 Strength Concrete has relatively high com-pressive strength, but significantly lower tensile strength (varies 7–13 %, average 10 % of the compressive strength). As a result, concrete always fails from tensile stress - even when loaded in compression. The practical implication of this is

  • Effects of Aggregate Properties on Concrete

     · Variation in the size of Aggregates changes the water demand, cement content, micro-cracking (strength) in concrete. It also effects pumpability, and durability of concrete. Grading of aggregates depends on the proportions of coarse and fine aggregate. If grading of aggregate is varied, it also changes cement paste content (cost economy), workability of the mix,

  • Study of the Mechanical Performance of a Recycled ...

    cled aggregate concrete (RAC). Physical and mechanical properties of RAC were investigated including density, com-pressive and flexural strength. The non-destructive test methods (NDT: pulse-velocity and rebound hammer) were used to determine the concrete strength. The results obtained were compared with crushed aggregate concrete (CAC) using

  • EFFECT OF ENTRAINED AIR ON STRENGTH AND DURABILITY …

    same source as the initial tests and the same natural sand. However, the coarse aggregate used was a crushed limestone with particle shape and texture different from those of the gravel previously used. Three cement contents were used at a constant slump of 5 to 6 inches: 4.0, 5.5 and 7.0 sacks per cubic yard of concrete.

  • IS 383 (1970): Specification for Coarse and Fine ...

    From Natural Sources For Concrete [CED 2: Cement and Concrete] Indian Standard SPECIFICATION FOR ... but to make concrete of high strength and durability, the mix proportions should be c!iosen ... or a very fine sand and the need to make suitable changes in the mix design. 0.4 Investigations have shown that the bulk density is affected by the ...

  • A study of the chemical effect of marble and granite ...

    pressive strength for the optimum mix is greater in case of sand replacement as compared to the cement replacement. Additional studies were conducted to evaluate the ef-fect of using granite waste as a replacement for cement and sand in the concrete and mortar mixes. Shehdeh (2016) observed that substitution of 10% of sand by

  • We''re Running Out Of Sand… And Cities Are To Blame

     · Again, the ratio varies a bit, depending on the strength requirements of the concrete, but sand can be up to 45% of aggregate. Concrete does require a specific type of sand…

  • Research Article Effect of Cylinder Size on the Modulus of ...

    high strength concrete greater than MPa. erefore, special care is still needed to compare the static and dynamic properties of high strength concrete from the two dierent cylinder sizes. 1. Introduction e elastic modulus of concrete is of great interest for design of new …

  • Effect of Sand Fines and Water/Cement Ratio on Concrete ...

    content also has adverse effect of the strength of concrete due to poor adhesion. Researchers have therefore develop various models for predicting the effect of sand fines and W/C on the strength of concrete. However, there is a gap in literature for the combined effect of sand fines and water/cement ratio''s effect on the properties of concrete.

  • Achievement of Early Compressive Strength in Concrete ...

     · Often it is observed, attainment of early compressive strength in concrete is a challenge. Researchers have tried various admixtures to achieve the objective. This work addresses the issue of achieving early compressive strength in concrete using a bacterium called Sporosarcina pasteurii . The bacterium is characterised with the ability to precipitate calcium carbonate in the …

  • Effect of water absorption by the aggregate on properties ...

    pressive strength of concrete. Thus, after one day, the use of dry aggregate gave on the average 10 MPa higher compressive strength than that of prewetted aggregate. The strength-density ratio was affected by the moisture condition of the aggregate. Thus, dry lightweight aggregate gave 9 …

  • Use of Manufactured Sand in Concrete and Construction An ...

    Removing sand from river bed impact the environment, as water table goes deeper & ultimately dry. General Requirements of Manufactured Sand. All the sand particles should have higher crushing strength. The surface texture of the particles should be smooth. The edges of …

  • Use of Coconut Husk Fiber for Improved Compressive and ...

    From the results obtained, it is clear that the com- pressive and flexural strength of concrete is maximum when the fiber content is 0.5% of the fine aggregate of the concrete. The coconut fiber reinforced concrete with 0.5% fiber in- creased by 38.13% for compression and 22.15% under flexural stress compared to the normal concrete.

  • The Effect of Aggregate Properties on Concrete

    The Effect of Aggregate Properties on Concrete Concrete is a mixture of cementious material, aggregate, and water. Aggregate is commonly considered inert filler, which accounts for 60 to 80 percent of the volume and 70 to 85 percent of the weight of concrete.

  • Comparative Analysis of Engineering Properties of Indus ...

    The quarry dust concrete and river sand concrete shoed slump test values of 80 mm and 60 mm, respectively. And, fresh concrete mix of quarry dust concrete showed lower workability than river sand concrete for 1:2:4 mix ratio and water-cement ratio of 0.55. The higher slump interposed for quarry dust may be due to higher sand content in quarry dust.

  • Influences of nano-particles on dynamic strength of ultra ...

     · Some types of fibres like steel fibres produce great impact, abrasion and shatter resistance in concrete,,, thus reduce flexural, shear and spall damage which are quite common in normal strength concrete, . Steel fibres can also increase concrete flexural strength, provide better crack control and energy absorption capacity.

  • Compressive impact tests of lightweight concrete with 155 ...

     · The experimental dynamic strength was larger than that of lightweight foamed concrete (strength < 1.0 N/mm 2) at high strain rates (Feng et al., 2020) . In addition to cement materials, PVA fibers have been proven to contribute to improving the impact resistance (Xu …

  • The requirements of AS 2758.1

    Concrete can be designed and supplied to suit a very broad range of required properties in both the plastic and hardened states. Ranging from low-strength footpath concrete to 100 MPa high-strength concrete columns in high-rise construction, each mix is designed for a specific purpose and application.

  • A Review on Structural Behavior, Design, and Application ...

    ment, embedment length, bar diameter, and concrete age. Based on the test data, it was noted that the bond strength was insignificantly affected by the surface treatment of the glass-fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) bar; similar bond strengths for smooth bars and sand-coated bars were obtained. On the other hand, a decrease in bond strength was

  • HOW AGGREGATE PROPERTIES AFFECTS CONCRETE ...

     · Visual inspection of gravel and natural sand is necessary for presence of clay lumps, clay coating, silt, grading and shape, while for crushed aggregates and sand inspection is necessary for stone dust, flaky shape and grading. If clay dust silt or mud is present and not removed/reduce through washing, it may produce lower strength concrete.

  • Use of vulcanized rubber in concrete as a partial ...

    Impact factor: 6.078 (Volume 6, Issue 5) ... The present scenario demands identification of substitute materials for the river sand for making concrete. Recently in the environmental issues, restrictions of local and natural access or sources and disposal of waste material are gaining great importance. Today, it becomes more difficult to find a ...

  • Effects of Sand Quality on Compressive Strength of ...

    Failure of concrete structures leading to collapse of buildings has initiated various researches on the quality of construction materials. Collapse of buildings resulting to injuries, loss of lives and investments has been largely attributed to use of poor quality concrete ingredients. Information on the effect of silt and clay content and organic impurities present in building sand being ...

  • Mechanical and durability characteristics of marble-powder ...

    utilizing marble dust in high-strength concrete mix. It was observed that maximum compressive strength would be achieved by 10% marble replacement. It was reported that replacement of cement and sand by marble powder up to 10% could increase the com-pressive strength, split tensile strength, and durability characteristics of concrete specimens.

  • What Is M Sand?

    The M Sand is no difference from river sand comparing quality and strength. Also sources. The only difference is that it is made artificially. The M sand is perfect for construction, and it is classified into three types based on its construction activity. Types of M sand. M sand for concrete – The particle size above 4.75 mm will be used ...

  • Evaluating Cracking in Concrete: Procedures | Giatec ...

     · The concrete then cracks when the tensile stresses imposed by a change in volume differential exceed that of its tensile strength. Thermal stresses usually cause cracking in mass concrete structures, the main cause of the temperature differentials …

  • Quality of Water for Making Concrete: A Review of Literature

    Ammonium chloride increased strength. 0.4, 0.8 and higher percentage by weight of water of ammonium nitrate give same strength as with similar percentage of NaCl in water for making concrete. Tannic acid 0.5% weight of water No effect on strength but may have a considerable effect on setting time of concrete.